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2021年修订版郑州航院英语专业学位论文规范

发布时间:2021年01月02日    浏览次数:[]

 

 

[A1] 郑州航空工业管理学院

 

文(设 计)

 

 

[A2]   2021   英语  专业  0907062  班级

 

 

 

 

 

 

                     中英称谓语的互译       

                        学号                

          指导教师          职称                

[A3] 

 

二О二 [A4] 


Translation of Address Terms

Between English and Chinese

[A5]  

 

 

 

By

*******

  

Supervisor: **********

[A6]  

 

 

School of Foreign Languages

 Zhengzhou University of Aeronautics
June 2021

[A7]  

 

内 容 摘 要[A8] 

 

    称谓[a9] 语是人们日常生活用语的组成部分,也是人们互相交流的通道。在语言交际中,称谓往往是传递给对方的第一个信息,恰当的称呼能使交际顺利进行。正因为此,称谓语在人际交往中起着相当重要的作用。但由于各国文化背景、社会习性、风俗习惯不同,由此形成了不同的称谓语。在不同的语言文化中,称谓的使用差异在跨文化交际中很容易造成不必要的误会,为避免跨文化交际中的称谓语语用失误,我们就要了解、熟知双方的称谓差异。                           

本文的创新点在于翻译作为跨文化交际的最主要手段之一,是和文化紧密结合在-起的。本文试用直译法、意译法、减译法等翻译方法对中英称谓语进行翻译对比并分析造成其差异的文化因素。探寻中英称谓语背后的文化因素,能更好地促进不同文化间的顺畅交流。

空一行

[a10]  键 词

中英;称[a11] 谓语;互译;文化

 

                                               

  

 

ii[a12] 

Abstract[A13] 

 

[a14]    In the linguistic communication, address terms, a necessary part of expressions in people's daily life, are always the first information transmitted to the audience, and it serves as a critical role of building bridges between individuals and interpersonal relationships. Apt addressing will make the communication go very smoothly. Same address terms, however, may involve different rules, different scopes and different meanings in different cultural climates, let alone the striking differences existing among distinct address terms. Therefore, in order to avoid the unnecessary failures in intercultural communication, the differences between Chinese-English address terms should be carefully analyzed and learned.

This thesis is based on the analysis of two common address terms, i.e. kinship terms and social terms and comparison of the differences between Chinese-English addressing. In the communication, people have to bring different address terms to represent the speaker and the audience. In this part of the thesis, the author expounds from the following three different social systems and value orientations, different religious influences and different concepts of family lives.

                                      

iii

To conclude, address terms are important social linguistic issues, which have important social functions. Accurate understanding and good command of address terms can lead to successful results in intercultural communication.

 

Key words: English and Chinese; [a15] address terms; translation; culture

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        

 

 

 

 

 

 iv

Acknowledgments[a16] 

 

U[a17] pon the completion of this thesis, I wish to tender my grateful acknowledgments to all those who offered me lavish encouragement and generous support during the course of my study.

First and foremost, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, Ms. Liu Yin, who has given me the most invaluable advice and has very carefully and patiently gone through all the drafts of my thesis. Without her insightful supervision, the completion of the thesis would be impossible.

I would also like to give my thanks to other teachers from whose instruction I have benefited a lot. I am too much obliged to the Department of Foreign Languages at ZUA for giving me the opportunity to pursue the Bachelor’s degree.

I wish to give my heartfelt thanks to my parents, who have always been so loving and supportive in my life and especially during my relentless pursuit of study.

Last but not least, I am also much obliged to my friends, former classmates and colleagues for their unselfish help and inspiration.       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

v

Contents[A18] 

Abstract (in Chinese)……………………………………..………...[A19] 

ii

Abstract (in English) ………………………………………..……...

iii

Acknowledgements……………………………………….…….......

v

Introduction………………………………………….…...................

1

1. Address Terms…………………………………..…………..........

2

1.1 Definition of Address Terms………………………………

2

1.2 Classification of Address Terms…………………………..

3

2. Cause[A20] s for the Difference on   Address Terms between English and Chinese………………………………………………………                                            

8

2.1 Different   Patriarchal Clan Systems and Legal Ideologies...

9[A21] 

2.2 Different Social Systems and   Value Orientations…………

9

2.3 Different   Hierarchical Systems and Religious Influences...

10

2.4 Different Concepts of   Reproductive and Family Life…….

10

3. Translation of Address Terms from Chinese to English…............

11

3.1 Translation Approach……………………………….……..

11

3.2 ****************……………………………………….[A22] 

12

4. Translation of Address   Terms from English to Chinese…….…...

13

4.1 Translation Approach……………………………………...

13

4.2 *************…………………………………………...

15

Conclusion…………………………………………………………

16

Works Cited………………………………………….……………..

17[A23] 

Translation of Address Terms

between English and Chinese[a24] 

 

Introduction[a25] 

Address terms are very common and universal in human verbal communication in daily life and in different cultures, and they are reliable barometers of interpersonal relationship. [a26] 

Addressing phenomenon is also important and frequent in social interactions. Nearly all verbal communication starts from designating the audience to whom the following remarks will direct. Address behavior serves not only as a means of attracting the attention of the hearer, but also as an indication of social relations between the speaker and the hearer. Appropriate address behavior is crucial for effective communication and successful maintenance of interpersonal relationships. It is a highly complex international phenomenon which can be understood as “extremely important strategies for the negotiation and control of social identity and social relationships between participants in conversation” (Layer, 1981: 304).

Normally, address behavior is governed by politeness phenomenon, and the choice of a particular address term is often deliberately made out of considerations for politeness. However, different cultures may have different notions of politeness. Misunderstanding and misinterpretation of address terms, same or different, can lead to feelings of offence, insult, and suspicion on the individuals involved, which will further result in break-downs in cross-cultural communication. This change from an address term to define intimate relationships within a family or among close friends or business associates, to the one used to define general relationships between strangers, between people of different age and occupational status, between students and professors, and between young people and their seniors, has been quite a recent development which has naturally stimulated cross-cultural studies of address behavior in different countries. And the present study focuses on the comparison between

1[A27] 

the Chinese and English address terms from the perspectives of intercultural communication. 

 

1. Address Terms [a28] 

Before the review, it is better for us to look at the definition of “address terms”. It is, however, really a challenge to give a satisfactory definition of “address terms”. The following are listed as reference for a unified definition. 

 

1.1 Definition of Address Terms[a29] 

Ralph Fasold (1990:1) [a30] states that address terms are the words speakers use to designate the person they are talking to while they are talking to them. And Fasold (2000:1) further points out: When people use language, they do more than just try to get another person to understand the speaker’s thoughts and feelings. At the same time, both people are using language in subtle ways to define their relationship to each other and to identify themselves as part of a social group.

In sum, address terms are always added to someone’s name in certain contexts, used as greetings, which may signify either veneration, a position or relationships. 

[a31] 

1.2 Classification of Address Terms

    Address Terms can be roughly divided into two main categories: kinship address terms and social address terms. The former ones can be further subdivided into genetic, marital terms and clan, non-clan terms, used by relatives who call each other; the latter ones can be further subdivided into three categories, i.e. occupational titles, official titles and social titles, used in social occasions, which is the cultural symbol of social structure and social relatives.

 

2

1.2.1 Kinship Address Terms[A32] 

Kinship terms are used to reflect and show family relationships. Chinese has evolved a much more complex system of address terms in kinship than English has.

                                                                                          

1.3 Generalized Kinship Terms

.................(内容略去)                                                       

 

Conclusion[a33] 

In this thesis, a contrast study is made on address terms in the two languages, i.e., English and Chinese. The differences in the repertoire of address terms in the two languages were investigated, the uses of address terms in the two languages were explained and differences reflected in cultural backgrounds were also discussed.

This study of the system and use of English and Chinese address term may suggest:

    (1) Address behaviors are important tools for establishing and maintaining social relationships.

    (2) Although the choice of address forms is generally constrained by common social factors, the actual use may vary from person to person and from language to language.

(3) Foreign language learners should not only learn the forms of address used in social contacts, but also know the conventional and current use and meanings of the address terms and grasp the cultural values embedded in address behavior.

In this world with a diversity of cultures, no culture may necessarily be better or worse than another. By the same token, no culture may necessarily be superior or inferior to another. Cultures are just different from one another. It is the cultural differences that make this world move, grow and enrich itself.

 

3

Works Cited[a34] 

[a35] 

[1] Brownell, Hiram H., and Heather H. Potter. “Inference Deficits in Right-Brain

Damaged Patients.” Brain and Language. 1986 (27): 310-21.

[A36] [2] Erikson, Erik. Childhood and Society. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 1963.

[3] Stewart, Donald C. “What Is an English Major, and What Should It Be?” College

Composition and Communication. 1989 (40): 188-202.

[4] Eilola, John. “Little Machines: Rearticulating Hypertext Users.” 14 Aug. 1996 [A37] 

<ftp://ftp.daedalus.com/pub/CCCC95/john-eilol>.

[5] 余永定.财政稳定问题研究的一个理论框架[J].世界经济.2005(7): 25-29.

[6] 张志健.严复思想研究[M].桂林:广西师大出版社,1989[a38] .

[7] 郭晓川.文化认同视域下的跨文化交际研究[D].上海外国语大学,2012.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

郑州航院英语专业学位论文规范

A Guidebook for the Preparations of Theses and Dissertations for English Majors

(2018111日起试用)

 

1. 总论

1.1  目的和适用范围

       学位论文应能代表学位申请人的学术水平和研究能力,也应能反映出申请人按照学术规范报告自己研究成果的文字能力。

       衡量学术水平和研究能力的标准,是论文是否在前人的基础上提出新的论点、论据或者新的角度和方法,从而对学位申请人所在的专业领域有所创新,有所贡献。

       报告研究成果的学术论文而言,在国际学术界已经形成了各领域、各学科间通用的规范化风格,该规范的基本标准不因导师、专业、学校、时间、地点、国度的改变而改变。学位申请人能否按照这样的标准撰写论文也已经成为衡量论文水平、衡量学术研究国际化水平的一项重要指标。为此,特参考制定《郑州航空工业管理学院英语专业学位论文规范》,以促进外国语学院英语语言文学专业本科学位论文格式的规范化。

 

1.2  学位申请人的责任

       大学对学生的学位论文均有严格的格式规范,即使社会上正规出版物中出现了与其规范相矛盾的地方,仍以自己的规范作为论文撰写的标准。学位申请人必须保证自己论文在文字和格式上符合规范,因而应该认真阅读本《规范》,按照规定的要求准备自己的论文。指导老师和论文答辩委员会有责任督促学位申请人按本《规范》的各项标准完成论文,并以论文是否符合本《规范》要求作为是否同意答辩、是否有权参加优秀论文评审的条件之一。

      

1.3  论文语言及组成部分

       英语语言文学专业的学士论文用英语撰写。

 

2.  打印规范

2.1  纸张和打印

       打  印:标准A4 白纸,单面打印。

       页边距:左边距3.5厘米,右边距2.54厘米,上下边距各2.54厘米。

         齐:正文和节标题左对齐(left alignment),正文两端对齐。

      

2.2  字体(Type

       英文:正文基本使用Times New Roman 小四字体,汉字基本使用宋体

章节标题:具体参考模版。

       段落首行:英文缩进4个字符。中文缩进2个汉字。

       正文行距1.5倍。

引语段block quotation)、参考文献著录条目:单倍行距。

长篇引用已出版和未出版的文献,别人的谈话(包括学生的谈话)都应按引语段排列。

    

      

2.3  页码(Pagination

       论文所有的页码标注在每一页页脚中间,第1页为正文第一章的第一页。

    前置部分(封面、中英文摘要、致谢页、目次页、图表清单)的页码使用小写罗马数字(即iiiiiiv等),封面页码略去,从第ii页起编码。

 

3.  前置部分

3.1  摘要(Abstract

       摘要是论文内容的简要陈述,是一篇完整的、可以独立使用的短文,因而必须具有自含性,即:读者即使不阅读论文的全文也可以从摘要中获得必要的、与论文等量的信息,以判断有无必要阅读全文。

摘要一般应包括

(1)研究题目的选择理由和目的;

(2)研究的方法或者过程;

(3)研究的发现或者成果;

(4)结论。

       用英文撰写的本科论文应符合国际上对学位论文摘要的通行标准,英文摘要不超过350个单词,中文摘要一般300-500字左右。

中英文摘要均不得包含任何数学公式、表格或示意图,不得包含非公知公用而又未加解释的缩略语、字符、代号。摘要不另加注释。

 
3.2  目次页(Table of Contents

章(一级标题)的序号应用阿拉伯数字

正文二级标题(节)及二级以下标题用阿拉伯数字编排序号,如3.13.2.2等,目次页应列出一级和二级标题,二级以下标题不用列出。 

章节的标题必须与正文中的标题相一致。

目次间的行距为1.5行,但同一目次换行时应为单倍行距。

 

3.3  图表清单(Lists of Tables and Figures

       论文如含有两幅以上的表格则可列表格清单List of Tables),如含有两幅以上的示意图则可列示意图清单List of Tables and Figures。图、表清单均应置于目次页之后。图表总数不超过六幅的可以列入同一份清单List of Tables and Figures),但清单中图、表应分别排列,总数超过六幅,则表和图应分列清单,各自单独成页。

    图表清单中用阿拉伯数字按图表在论文中出现的先后顺序编号,如Table 4.1Figure 6.2等。清单中每一份图表都应列出序号、题目和页码。页码必须右对齐(可用Microsoft Word选项单中“格式\制表位”的指令设置)

 

4.  主体部分(Text

4.1  章节标题

       标题(即一级标题):四号加粗;

二级及以下标题(节标题):小四号加粗; 二级和二级以下的标题用阿拉伯数字编排序号,则所有标题均应左对齐;二级及以下的标题每个单词首字母大写。

       

 

章节标题示意图

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

4.文献引用(Citation(具体参考文档后的模板,以模板为准)

       文献引用必须注明出处,这直接反映论文作者对所涉领域的把握和治学态度。文献引用应遵照下列规范:

引用规范:学位论文撰写人应该基本根据MLAthe Modern Language Association,人文科学常用的要求,次序、大小写、缩写、标点等细节上格式上做到前后一致。

       引文出处:使用括号夹注的方法(一般不使用脚注或者尾注)。正文中,括号夹注放

在句末标点以内,但不得放在引文的引号以内(见图)。引语段(block quotation

的括号夹注不属于单句,因而不得将其放在句末的标点以内(见图)。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

括号夹注在正文中的使用方法

规范

Her idea is further   confirmed that “people think her odd and that nobody loves and admires her”   (Fountain, 1998: 33).

 

 

不规范

Her idea is further   confirmed that “people think her odd and that nobody loves and admires her.”   (Fountain, 1998: 33) 

 

Her idea is further confirmed that “people think her odd and that   nobody loves and admires her (Fountain, 1998:33).”

 

 

括号标注在引语段中的使用方法

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


4.2.1 括号夹注基本规范

 

    引用整篇文献(即全书或全文)观点时有两种情况, 一种是作者的姓氏在正文中没有出现,如:

Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (Taylor, 1993:32 ).

    另一种情况是作者的姓氏在正文中出现,按MLA规范使用括号夹注如

Taylor(1993:32) claims that Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing.

 

     在英文撰写的论文中引用中文著作或者期刊,括号夹注中只需用汉语拼音标明作者的姓氏,不得使用汉字,如:(Zhu, 1980: 12)

 

     引用文献中某一具体观点或文字时必须注明该观点或者该段文字出现的页码,没有页码是文献引用不规范的表现。若作者的姓氏已在正文同一句中出现,则不需要在括号夹注中重复

 

4.2.2 特殊范例

 

引用合著文献

二至三位作者:

Among intentional spoonerisms, the “punlike metathesis of distinctive features may serve to weld together words etymologically unrelated but close in their sound and meaning” (Jakobson and Waugh 304).

如果有三位作者括号夹注中应用逗号分隔他们的姓氏(Alton, Davies, and Rice, 1980: 56)

 

三位作者以上:

The study was extended for two years, and only after results were reviewed by an independent panel did the researchers publish their findings (Blaine et al, 1980: 35).

et al. 为拉丁文,表示 and others.

 
引用同样姓氏的不同作者

       假若两个或两个以上的作者有同样的姓氏则括号夹注中应同时使用他们名字的首字母

Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Miller, 1980: 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller, 1977: 46).

 

       引用中文著作或期刊时同姓作者的情况较多,应在括号夹注中使用他们名字的首字母加以区分,如:

 

MLA  (S.R. Wang, 1980: 26)          (J.X. Wang, 1988: 30)

引用团体作者

       引用团体作者的作品,括号夹注中应使用团体的名称

It was apparent that the American health care system needed “to be fixed and perhaps radically modified” (Public Agenda Foundation, 1980: 4).

 

引用无作者文献

    引用无作者文献,如果文献标题没有出现在正文里,则括号夹注中应使用该标题或者(如果标题过长的话)使用该标题中的关键词组,如:

An anonymous Wordsworth critic once argued that his poems were too emotional (Wordsworth Is A Loser, 1986: 100).

 

引用书信、谈话中的观点或文字

       书信和谈话(含电子邮件、访谈、电话等)无法在正文后面的参考文献中列出,但应该在正文中使用括号夹注的方法注明出处。例如

Jesse Moore (telephone conversation, May 12, 1989) admitted the need for an in-depth analysis of the otherness expressed in the work.

 
 同时引用不同作者的多篇文献

       括号夹注可以包括不同作者的多篇文献,文献按作者姓氏的字母顺序排列(注意分号的使用),如:

The dangers of mountain lions to humans have been well documented (Rychnovsky ,1980: 40; Seidensticker , 1988: 114; Williams, 1867: 30).

引用非直接文献

       论文应尽可能避免使用非直接文献(即二级文献secondary source),但在无法找到直接文献(即一级文献primary source)的情况下,引文可以从非直接文献中析出,例如

Samuel Johnson admitted that Edmund Burke was an “extraordinary man” (qtd. in Boswell 2: 450).注意:“qtd. in中的字母i不得大写。

若直接作者的名字没出现在正文里,括号夹住的时候需要标注直接作者和转引文献,例如:

Edmund Burke was an “extraordinary man”(Samuel in Baswell 2:450).

 

引用文学作品和经典文献

       MLA的规范,有几种情况括号夹注内不标页码。在引用剧本时应标出引文的幕、场、行,如:

In his famous advice to players, Shakespeare’s Hamlet defines the purpose of theater, “whose end, both at the first and now, was and is, to hold, as ‘twere, the mirror up to nature” (3.2.21-23).

 

这里的括号夹注表示引文来自剧本第三幕第二场的2123行。(注意标点的使用。)

       在引用诗歌时应标出引文的节、行,如:

When Homer’s Odysseus comes to the hall of Circe, he finds his men “mild / in her soft spell, fed on her drug of evil” (10.209-11).

 

这里的括号夹注表示引文来自诗歌第10节的209211行。对不分节的诗第一次引用时应说明括号里标的是行数,使用“line”,以后的引用则不需再说明。例如:    第一次引用:(lines 5-8) 以后的引用:(12-13)

 

       在引用有章节、分册的小说的时候,应标出引文所在的页码、册数、章节,如:

One of Kingsolver’s narrators, teenager Rachel, pushes her vocabulary beyond its limits. For example, Rachel complains that being forced to live in the Congo with her missionary family is “a sheer tapestry of justice” because her chances of finding a boyfriend are “dull and void” (117; bk. 2, ch. 10).

 

例子里的括号夹注表示引文来自该书第二册第十章的第117页。(注意标点和缩略语的使用。)

       在引用《圣经》、《可兰经》等经典文献的时候,应标出引文的篇、章、节,如:

 

Consider the words of Solomon: “If your enemies are hungry, give them food to eat. If they are thirsty, give them water to drink” (Bible, Prov. 25.21).

 

例子里的括号夹注表示引文来自旧约《圣经》的《箴言》篇第25章第21节。《圣经》各篇的缩写有标准的写法,因而使用时应该注意核对。

 
对引语文字的更改

       直接引语如出现在正文中间,使用引语的句子不得违反英语语法,不得出现“句中句”。为了使含直接引语的句子合乎语法,往往有必要对引语的文字作一定的更改。如果要删除引语中个别词句,可以用省略号ellipses)取代删除的词句。如果要加入或者更改个别单词或者词组,则可以将需要加入或者更改的单词或词组放在方括号(square brackets[ ])以内。例如:

 

删除词句:

He stated, “The ‘placebo effect,’ ... disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner” (Smith, 1982: 276), but he did not clarify which behaviors were studied.

 

添加词组:

Smith (1982:276) found that “the placebo effect, which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when [his own and others’] behaviors were studied in this manner.”

 

       无论删改还是添加字词均不得变更引语的原意。

       注意:如果删除是在句内,应该空一格以后再加省略号。如果删除是在一句整句以后,则应在该整句最后的标点(句号、问号或惊叹号)不空格直接加省略号。省略号应该用三个句点。

 

请注意:

 

       三行或以上的引语作为独立的引语段block quotation

引语段可以用单倍行距但其首行和末行应与正文空1.5行。

       引语段左右两边均应较正文缩进5格。

如果引语段原为一自然段,则其首行应进一步缩进4个字符

    引语段的段首和段尾不得使用引号。

    引语段的字体必须与正文相同。  

正文中的中文引文应提供英文译文。

引语段结尾标点符号后标注引用的页码

 

 

4.3  图表(Tables, Figures, Charts, and Illustrations

       图表必须有序号和题目并标明单位序号和题目置于其正上方单位置于其

右上方。题目应简短确切一般不超过一行。须有自明性,即不阅读正文的读者也

能够理解图或表的意思。

图表的符号、标记、代码、缩略词等,都必须附注于图下或表下(即使用Notes:)。

缩略词和符号必须与正文中一致。表内同一栏的数字必须上下对齐,空白处必须解

释。

       图表不得宽于或高于正文,不得跨页。如因[可去掉]必须跨页,须在前一页表格的

底部加上“Continued on the next page”,在后一页表格的顶部加上“Continued”。

    图表序号、题目、单位及注解的文字一般使用单倍行距,

字体可以根据需要调整大小。

      每一份图表在正文中都必须提到,并作一定的解释。正文中提及图表时必须用其序

号,不得使用见左图见下表等模糊字眼。

 

正确使用图表的序号

正确

Table 4.1 sums up   the results of data analysis.

错误

The following table   sums up the results of data analysis:

 

      

5. 参考文献 以文档后的模板为准

       正文引用文献须基本按MLA的要求著录在Works Cited之下在正文最后一章结束后另页开始,页码与正文相连。文献著录必须按作者姓氏的字母顺序排列不得以正文中出现的先后编码排序。每一条目中的各项内容都应该按规定的次序和格式编排。

       参考文献的字体与正文相同,条目间距为1.5行,条目内换行用单倍行距。

 

5.1 出版的文章

 

一位作者写的文章

Stewart, Donald C. “What Is an English Major, and What Should It Be?” College Composition and Communication 1989(40): 188-202.

 

两位作者写的文章

Brownell, Hiram H., and Heather H. Potter. “Inference Deficits in Right-Brain

Damaged Patients.” Brain and Language 1986 (27): 310-21.

 

两位以上的作者写的文章

 

Mascia-Lees, Frances E., Pat Sharpe, and Colleen B. Cohen. “Double Liminality

and the Black Woman Writer.” American Behavioral Scientist 1987 (31): 101-14.

如果作者人数超过三人也可以考虑仅保留第一作者的名字加上et al.拉丁文 “and others”),

Mascia-Lees, Frances E., et al. “Double Liminality and the Black Woman Writer.”

American Behavioral Scientist 1987 (31): 101-14.

 

如果在英文撰写的论文中引用中文著作或者期刊括号夹注中只需用汉语拼音标明作者的姓氏,相应的,参考文献著录的条目必须按作者姓氏汉语拼音的字母顺序与英文文献的条目一同排列。条目中凡正文中未加引用的内容均不必翻译。引用中文期刊文章必须标明文章出现的页码。条目中的汉语不得使用斜体。

 

 

5.2著录已出版的书籍

一位作者写的书籍

Graff, Gerald. Professing Literature: An Institutional History. Chicago: U of

Chicago P, 1987.

 

新版书(Book with a new edition

Eriikson, Erik. Childhood and Society. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 1963.

 

团体作者(Book with a corporate author)写的书籍

College Board. College-bound Seniors: 1989 SAT Profile. New York: College

Entrance Examination Board, 1989.

 

无作者书籍(Book with no author

Guidelines for the Workload of College English Teacher. Urbana: National Council

of Teachers of English, 1987.

 

编撰的书籍(Edited book

Kerckhove, Derrick de, and Charles J. Lumsden, eds. The Alphabet and the Brain:

The Lateralization of Writing. Berlin Springer-&shy;Verlag, 1988.

 

翻译的书籍(Translated book

Lacan, Jacques. Ecrits: A Selection. Trans. Alan Sheridan. New York: Norton,

1977.

 

 

5.3著录尚未正式出版的文献

硕博士论文(Dissertation

Hubert, Henry Allan. “The Development of English Studies in Nineteenth-Century

Anglo- Canadian Colleges.” Diss. U of British Columbia, 1988.

 

学术会议上的报告(Conference paper

Moffett, James. “Censorship and Spiritual Education.” The Right to Literacy

Conference. Columbus, Ohio, September 1988.

 

5.4著录网络出版物

      著录网络出版物必须标明论文撰写人上网查询的日期(date of retrieval),标明网址。条目中网址如需断开换行,必须在“/”之后或者“.”之前,网址中不得出现空格。

Felluga, Dino. Undergraduate Guide to Literary Theory. Purdue

University. 15 Nov. 2000 <http://omni.cc.purdue.edu/7Efelluga/ theory2.html>.

来自网络讨论区(online newsgroup, forum, or discussion group)的信息

著录来自网络讨论区的信息,如果作者提供了真实姓名,则条目必须使用其真实姓名,否则使用作者在讨论区使用的姓名。如:

王明亮.关于中国学术期刊标准数据库系统工程的进展. [EB/OL].

http://www.cajcd.edu.cn. 1999-10-04.

       注意:这里最后是一个著录网络上汉语出版物的例子 1999-10-04”为上网查询引用日期。     

 
5.5参考文献的排列

1)文献条目按作者或第一作者姓氏的字母顺序排列。英语文献排列在汉语文献前面。

2)同一作者的多篇文献或者同一批排序相同的作者的多篇文献应该按出版次序,由远及近排列。

3)如果同一作者既是一篇文献的独立作者,又是另一篇文献的第一作者,则独立作者的文献应列在第一作者的文献前面,如:

4)如果不同文献有相同的第一作者,但其余作者不尽相同,则条目按第二作者姓氏的字母顺序排列。如果第二作者也相同,则按第三作者姓氏的字母顺序排列。

5)同一作者或者同一批排序相同作者在同一年份出版的多篇文献应该按文献标题第一个实词首字母的顺序排列,并在年份后加上英文字母。

6)无作者文献应该把文献标题看作作者的姓对待,除去冠词后按第一个词首字母的顺序排列。同样,团体作者应该把团体名称除去冠词后按第一个词首字母的顺序排列。

 

 

6. 非英语词句的引用

       用英语撰写的论文必须使得母语为英语的读者能够看懂因此论文中引用的汉语或其它语言的词句都应该加以解释。

       专门讨论翻译、语言对比的论文往往有整段的非英语引文,引文的英文翻译应放在上下文读者容易找到的地方。非英语引文及其英文翻译均应视为引语段,按引语段的格式编排,首尾不得使用引号。英文翻译如果属于引文同样必须注明出处。

       除了整段使用非英语引文以外,凡是使用非英语短句或词语的(不包括英语中的外来语)必须提供英语翻译,翻译应放在引号和括号之内。论文中汉语或其它非拉丁书写语的词句如果属于引文,则应用引号,但如果属于语言实例(linguistic example),则不应使用引号(更不得使用斜体)。英语以外的其它拉丁语的词句则应使用斜体,属于引文还要加引号,否则不加引号。

 

非英语短句或词语英语翻译的格式

规范

Learners of Spanish   tend to overuse certain idiomatic expressions, e.g., irse todo en humo   (“to go up in smoke”).

 

规范

Some translators   emphasized the concept of (“faithfulness”).

不规范

Learners of Spanish   tend to overuse certain idiomatic expressions, e.g., “irse todo en humo” (“to   go up in smoke”).

 

不规范

Some translators   emphasized the concept of “” (“faithfulness”).

 

    论文中出现的汉语或其它非拉丁书写语不得加英语词缀。

 

正确使用英语词缀

正确

In Chinese, using (“fine”) several times is   not necessarily an emphatic device.

错误

In Chinese, using   several ’s   (“fine”) is not necessarily an emphatic device.

 

 

7. 避免用语歧视

 

避免使用有隐含歧视性意义的词组

 

正确与错误的指代成年人的名词词组

正确:

a chairperson

a firefighter

a nurse

people, humanity, humankind

human-computer interaction

workforce, workers

Gladys Yang

parenting, nurturing

a police officer

a postal worker

a poet

a president

 

错误

a chairman

a fireman

a male nurse

man, mankind

man-machine interaction

manpower

Mrs. Yang Xianyi

mothering

a policeman

a postman

a poetess

a woman president

 

 

:(1a female researchera woman president这样一类字眼暗指女性一般不够资格担当研究员、校长这类职务a male nurse”则暗指一般只能由女性担当护士之类的工作。(2)使用女性专业人员的全名(如“Gladys Yang)而不得暗指其婚姻状况(如“Mrs. Yang Xianyi”)。

 
 避免使用有种族歧视嫌疑的语言

    提及有残疾人士时用中性名词下列词语应避免使用

 

amputee                                cripple                                  deaf and mute

the disabled                          the learning disabled            the mentally ill

the physically disabled         the retarded                          retarded adult

 

使用中性名词时有关残疾的修饰语应放在中性名词的后面,不要放在中性名词的前面

 

对有残疾人士的正确提法

正确:

person who has a disability

child with a congenital disability

child with a birth impairment

person with mental illness

people with psychiatric disability

错误:

disabled person

defective child

mentally ill person

handicapped people

mentally retarded person

 
 避免使用有种族歧视嫌疑的语言

                            对有残疾人士的正确提法

正确:

Asian-American

African-American, Black

Asians

Native American, American Indian

 

错误:

Chinaman, Jap

nigger, Negro, Afro-American

Orientals

Indian giver

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                      

 

 


空两行,此页为固定格式,字体型号请勿改动。整篇文档左边距3.5厘米,右边距2.54厘米,上下边距各2.54厘米。

每行开头对齐,横线上字体为宋体三号不加粗

横线上字体为宋体三号不加粗

日期为定稿日期,定稿日期答辩前再行统一

上面不空行,英文标题尽量控制在两行,Times New Roman小二加粗

居中,Times New Roman 小三加粗

居中,Times New Roman 小三加粗

上面不空行,与下文空一行,黑体二号加粗,每个字之间空一格

具体内容(按照中文章格式排列,300500字,使用宋体四号字,首行缩进两个汉字,1.5倍行距。)

 

居中,黑体二号,每个字中间空一格

使用宋体四号字,左顶格,3-5个词,分号间隔,最后一个关键词不置标点符号。

封面页页码略去,从第ii页起码。Times New Roman 五号,居中。

上面不空行,与下文空一行,Times New Roman,二号加粗,居中

Times New Roman四号,首行缩进4个字符,300—500 words1.5倍行距

Times New Roman四号,Key Words加粗,与上文空一行,英文关键词不加粗3—5个词,用分号分开,分号后空一格,最后一词不置标点符号。非专有名词首字母不大写。

上面不空行,下面与正文之间空一行二号,times new roman, 加粗,居中

 

四号,首行缩进4个字符Times New Roman 1.5倍行距。

Times New Roman二号加粗,居中,上下都不空行,

目录中只出现一级和二级标题,Times New Roman ,四号,标题中阿拉伯数字和标题之间空一格,1.5倍行距,标题中单词除虚词外首字母大写

标题若是超过一行,上下两行英文对齐

二级标题缩进4个字符,二级标题若为两行,上下两行英文对齐

每一个一级标题下如果有二级标题必须至少有两个,比如只有1.1没有1.2为错误。

为减少学生制作目录的麻烦,建议可以采取表格形式将页码对齐,表格目录制作出来以后将表格边框虚化即可使用

尽量控制在两行,Times New Roman, 二号,加粗,居中,除虚词外首字母大写,上面不空行,下面与正文空一行

无一级标题序号,Times New Roman四号加粗,与下文无空行。

正文Times New Roman小四号,1.5倍行距,首行缩进4个字符。

页码居中,Times New Roman, 小五

一级标题与上文空一行,与下文无空行。Times New Roman四号,加粗,章节标题除虚词外首字母大写。

二级及以下标题与上文空一行,与下文无空行。Times New Roman小四,除虚词外首字母大写。

作者姓名在正文中出现,括号加注不需要再重复作者姓氏,只需要出版年和页码。如果作者的姓名在正文中没有出现,括号加注必须出现作者的姓氏,如:(Taylor, 1993: 32)请参阅前文。

每部分之间空一行。

三级标题小四字号,与上文空一行,与下文无空行。

与上文空一行,与下文无空行。无一级标题序号。

另起一页。上面不空行。Times New Roman 四号,加粗,左顶格

空一行。

带方括号的阿拉伯数字标序,左顶格,方括号与人名之间空一格。英文期刊文献必须标注期号和页码,英文Times New Roman小四号字,1.5倍行距,同一条参考文献超过一行上下英文对齐。同一条目内单倍行距。英文参考文献句中的标点符号后面空一格。

网络文献的日期为引用日期

带方括号的阿拉伯数字标序,左顶格,序号的方括号与人名之间空一格。中文宋体小四号。中文参考文献标点符号与汉字之间无空格。文献条目按作者或第一作者姓氏的字母顺序排列。英语文献排在前面,汉语文献排在后面,都按照字母顺序排列。学校文件201647)建议本科论文参考文献至少6篇。其中含近几年参考文献。英文参考文献不少于三篇。所有参考文献在论文中必须有体现。

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